Antibacterial and Anti-biofilm Activities of Iraqi Propolis Extracts against Some Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogenic Bacteria

  • Shaymaa M. Miry 1* Huda S. Al-Hayanni 2*


The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections is still a significant problem in the world, a leading cause of high morbidity and death, particularly in the elderly and individuals with medical problems. As a result of the difficult-to-treat diseases caused by these antibiotic-resistant bacteria, has demonstrated a need to develop and use alternative antimicrobial agents to control these bacteria. There has been a growing interest in natural products and extracts for the discovery of new natural therapeutic alternatives. Therefore, this current study aimed to know the antibacterial activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the Iraqi propolis against multidrug-resistant clinical bacterial isolates (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the effect of these extracts on biofilm production as an important virulence factor. The study results showed that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts are effective as antibacterial and anti-biofilm against the studied multidrug-resistant bacterial isolates at all tested concentrations with significant differences. The study also showed that the alcoholic extract is more effective as an anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm than the aqueous extract of the propolis.